According to the latest official figures, more than 3 million Syrians are residing in Turkey under the status of temporary protection, and more than 50% of these are under 18 years old. The number of children from Syria between 5 and 14 years of age is 677,217 and 315,000 for the 15–19 age group, meaning that more than 1 million children are at a school age. According to the temporary protection status, children from Syria have the right to access education, including preschool education in Turkey. However, the percentage of registered children in schools varies 15–30% and this ratio is significantly lower outside of the camps. After the introduction of new regulations, more registration is expected. In this article, we focus on the factors that determine being out of school for children from Syria living in Turkey. We use the findings of the fieldwork conducted for the Baseline Assessment Study for an NGO in Turkey as a basis in order to understand the current situation. Our data comprise 541 interviews conducted in Şanlıurfa and Hatay, two cities where Syrians form a significant portion of the population, in February and March 2016. According to the findings, providing support to families with the lowest incomes, those families who have more than four children and those parents with the lowest education will increase children’s access to school, which definitely contributes to their overall well-being.